Every couple’s dream is to bring a healthy baby to the world. Most of the time, couples reach a happy ending without a long effort, but this may not be easy for everyone. About 4-5 percent of babies born in a year in our country are born with IVF treatment. Defined as inability to conceive despite a year of unprotected intercourse because of infertility Stating that 15 percent of couples apply to IVF centers, Gynecology, Obstetrics and IVF Specialist Prof. Dr. Bülent Baysal explained the latest treatment methods for in vitro fertilization.
In recent years, the healthiest embryo can be selected with the embryoscope, which allows minute-by-minute monitoring without taking the embryos out of the environment (the refrigerator called the incubator) after the sperm is injected into the egg with the microinjection method. In this way, fewer embryos are transferred, and those with sufficient embryos are able to choose the right embryo. Embryos are not often taken outside to evaluate their development. Thus, they stay in the appropriate environment with the least risk, the images recorded on the computer of the embryos whose development rates are constantly monitored are monitored by the team and the best performance is found.
PATIENT-FRIENDLY TREATMENT PROTOCOLS
In recent years, with the protocol called antagonist, after 8-9 days of injection, the egg collection stage is reached. This application, which has the same success rates as other applications, is widely used. Patient follow-up varies from patient to patient and it is aimed to achieve the highest success rates. With the newly developed 7-day stimulant drugs, it can be applied with fewer injections rather than daily injections. With weekly injections and oral medications, higher quality of life and comfort of patients, ie users, is aimed.
EMBRYO FREEZING (VITRIFICATION)
After the embryo transfer in IVF applications, the remaining quality embryos are frozen and stored for use in future applications after the family’s permission is obtained. Embryos are quickly frozen and stored using the new freezing method, vitrification. With this method, frozen embryos are thawed very well and good pregnancy rates are achieved. Sometimes, patients who have entered the IVF program and use ovarian stimulating drugs for follicle development develop overstimulation of the ovaries (hyperstimulation syndrome). In this case, embryo transfer may aggravate the clinical picture, so the embryos are frozen and stored and can be transferred in another menstrual period, when the patient’s clinical condition improves, on average, two months later. In cases where frozen embryos are used, the use of ovarian stimulant drugs and egg collection are not required, so it brings double financial and moral burden. When the intrauterine membrane reaches the appropriate thickness and echo, the embryos are thawed and transferred.
With the vitrification method, a much higher healthy thawed embryo and higher pregnancy rates are obtained with the slow freezing method used in frozen embryos compared to frozen embryos.
OPTIONS TO PROTECT FERTILITY (EGG AND EMBRYO FREEZING)
In recent years, especially in the period before the age of 40, breast cancer is frequently encountered. With oncology treatment of a woman or man, her reproductive cells may be damaged and then there may be no chance of having children with their own cells. In recent years, a large number of oocytes, ie egg cells, embryos have been frozen and embryo transfer is made to patients whose treatment has been completed and who are given pregnancy permission by oncologists.
PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS (PGD)
There have been rapid developments in the field of genetics in recent years. With the PGD method, many families who have previously lost their children due to genetic diseases and have had a miscarriage can have children. Biopsy should be performed by an embryologist experienced in this technique without damaging the embryo. Thus, the diagnosis of genetic diseases with known DNA sequences can be made, especially single gene diseases that can be encountered with increasing rate of consanguineous marriages can be diagnosed. It is known that increased chromosomal anomaly rates are detected despite the normal appearance of the embryo when it comes to advanced female age. In these cases, PGD can increase pregnancy rates.
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